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Grade 6-8 - MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes - LS1.A: Structure and Function

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function
• All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). (MS-LS1-1)
• Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. (MS-LS1-2)
• In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions. (MS-LS1-3)

Use the Template and Resource Links to Fulfill NGSS

l. Goals:

  1. Understand that all living things are made up of living cells and that organisms can be single celled or multicellular.
  2. Understand that each cell has structures (organelles) that have a function, including a cell membrane around the cell that affects traffic in and out.
  3. Understand that cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems, which work together to form a functioning multicellular organism.

Essential Questions:

  1. How do cells carry out all the functions necessary for an organism's growth and health?
  2. How do the body systems work together to carry out all the functions necessary for an organism's growth and health?
  3. What are the characteristic behaviors that increase the success at reproduction?

NGSS Note: Think, question, entertain ideas.

ll. Introductory Activities to Assess Prior Knowledge about Structure and Function

A. Simple Activities - that assess students’ understanding of cells, organelles and body systems.
Cells - Analogy Matching Activity
Cell Organelle Quiz - Matching
Body Systems Overview and Naming
Simple Activities - that assess students’ understanding of the structure and function of cells and tissues.
Comparing Animal and Plants Cells - Labeling
Cell Labeling Page
Drawing the Cells and Organelles

lll. New Knowledge about Structure and Function

A. Read about cells, organelles and body systems.
Cells - Structure and Function (6-8 NGSS)
Unicellular Microorganisms and their Organelles
Unicellular Organisms Overview and Classification
Plant Cell - Color DiagramAnimal Cell - Color Code the Organelles
Animal Cell - Color Diagram
A Look at Plant Cell Organelles - Coloring
Cells - Structure, Function & Organelles
Levels of Organization in the Body - Cells to Organisms
 
lV. Experiments, Activities, Model-making (Critical Thinking)

A. Inquiry related to above topics:
Cheek Cell Investigation
Onion Skin Cells - Investigation

B. Examples of Models (depicts the concept expressed in the reading):

Ask students to look at the models and explain how each illustrates the concepts they've read about.

Performance Expectations

Students who demonstrate understanding can:
MS-LS1-1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.]

MS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.]

MS-LS1-3.
Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding that cells form tissues and tissues form organs specialized for particular body functions. Examples could include the interaction of subsystems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the mechanism of one body system independent of others. Assessment is limited to the circulatory, excretory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, and nervous systems.]

 

 

Cell and organelles
Special Senses Poster
unicellular organisms
Cheek Cell Investigation

 

V. Summarize Knowledge - Enduring Understandings

  1. All living things are made up of living cells and organisms can be single celled or multicellular.
  2. Each cell has structures (organelles) that have a function, including a cell membrane around the cell that affects traffic in and out.
  3. Cells make up tissues, which make up organs, which make up organ systems, which work together to form a functioning multicellular organism.


Vl. Next Generation of Science Standards (NGSS) - Middle School
Life Science

Disciplinary Core Ideas
 LS1.A: Structure and Function
• All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular).

• Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell.

Science and Engineering Practices
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations in 6-8 builds on K-5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions.
• Conduct an investigation to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of an investigation.

Developing and Using Models -
Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems. 
• Develop and use a model to describe phenomena.

Crosscutting Concepts
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Phenomena that can be observed at one scale may not be observable at another scale. (MS-LS1-1)

Structure and Function
• Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function.

Performance Expectations - Students who demonstrate understanding can:
MS-LS1-1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.]

MS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.]

*provided by the NGSS website

Use Teacher Login to show answer keys or other teacher-only items.

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
LS1.D: Information Processing
• Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories. (MS-LS1-8)

 
ll. Introductory Activities to Assess Prior Knowledge about Structure and FunctionSimple Activities - that assess students’ understanding of sensory receptors.
Sense Organ Graphic Organizer
Sense Organs of the Skin

Question: What are some examples of electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical sensory stimuli animals recieve and to which they act upon?
1. Break students down into groups of 3-4.
2. Ask students to generate a list of different sensory stimuli (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical) that animals receive and respond to (i.e. smell, temperature change, etc.)
3
. Discuss

V. Summarize Knowledge - Enduring Understandings

  1. Animals have sensory receptors that brings in signals from the world and transmit them to the brain for a reaction (and to build a memory collection for future use) and they can be electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical.

 

Vl. Next Generation of Science Standards (NGSS) - Middle School Life Science

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.D: Information Processing
• Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories. (MS-LS1-8)

Science and Engineering Practices

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6-8 builds on K-5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.
• Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence. (MS-LS1-8)

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect
• Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural systems. (MS-LS1-8)
• Phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability. (MS-LS1-4),(MS-LS1-5)

Performance Expectations Students who demonstrate understanding can:
MS-LS1-8. Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include mechanisms for the transmission of this information.]

 

Grade 6-8 - MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Grade 6-8 - MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Grade 6-8 - MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes
Grade 6-8 - MS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

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