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Opossum

Didelphis virginiana
Opossum

Range

They are found from southern Canada, throughout the U.S., into Mexico and Central America (and spreading).

Habitat

They live in woodlands, along streams and around farms.

Body Traits

They reach about 20 inches long (50cm) and weigh up to 12-14 pounds (6kg). They are mostly grayish colored with a white, pointed face, pink nose and thin, round, hairless, dark ears. They have a long, pink, hairless, rounded tail, like a giant rat’s tail. It can be used to wrap around things like fingers (prehensile). They have 50 tiny teeth - the most of any mammal in North America. Their back feet have usable, clawless thumbs (opposable) that help in climbing. They have a belly pouch where their young stay protected and nurse (marsupials). They are the only marsupial in North America.

Habits

They are active at night (nocturnal). They live alone (solitary) except to mate or a female with young. They are well adapted to living near people and will wander around raiding garbage cans and grain bins. When approached, they hiss and bare their many sharp teeth. They also may “play dead” and lie still, their eyes and mouth open. They even emit a smell like rotting flesh. This is an amazing adaptation to discourage predators. They den in abandoned burrows, tree holes or human-made stuctures. They can climb trees.

Diet

They will eat almost anything; fruit, plants, nuts, eggs, insects, rodents and poultry (omnivores) and even dead animals (carrion).

Predators

They are killed by dogs, cats, foxes and people (road traffic).

Reproduction

Because they are marsupials, their reproduction is very different than all the other mammals in North America. They are pregnant for less than 2 weeks (gestation) and give birth to up to 14 tiny babies (all of them together could fit in a teaspoon at birth). They crawl into the pouch and attach to a nipple and nurse. They stay in the pouch for 2 months. When they finally come out of the pouch, they often ride on their mother’s back. Females have 1-3 litters a year with up to 15 young per litter. There is a high mortality rate for young.

Lifespan and/or Conservation Status

Opossums have a short lifespan, depending upon predation and winter temperatures (and road traffic) in their habitat. Generally,  they only live up to 3 years in the wild, but can live up to 8 years in captivity. There is a high mortality rate among newborn opossums with only about 40% reaching a year old. They are listed as Lower Risk - least concern.

Opossum

Classification

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Didelphimorphia
Family: Didelphidae
Subfamily: Didelphinae
Genus: Didelphis
Species: Didelphis virginiana

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