Life Science - Growth and Development of Organisms
Disciplinary Core Ideas (NGSS)
LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms
• Organisms reproduce, either sexually or asexually, and transfer their genetic information to their offspring. (secondary to MS-LS3-2)
• Animals engage in characteristic behaviors that increase the odds of reproduction. (MS-LS1-4)
• Plants reproduce in a variety of ways, sometimes depending on animal behavior and specialized features for reproduction. (MS-LS1-4)
• Genetic factors as well as local conditions affect the growth of the adult plant. (MS-LS1-5)
LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
• Genes are located in the chromosomes of cells, with each chromosome pair containing two variants of each of many distinct genes. Each distinct gene chiefly controls the production of specific proteins, which in turn affects the traits of the individual. Changes (mutations) to genes can result in changes to proteins, which can affect the structures and functions of the organism and thereby change traits. (MS-LS3-1)
• Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences that result from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited. (MS-LS3-2)
LS3.B: Variation of Traits
• In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random) by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other. (MS-LS3-2)
• In addition to variations that arise from sexual reproduction, genetic information can be altered because of mutations. Though rare, mutations may result in changes to the structure and function of proteins. Some changes are beneficial, others harmful, and some neutral to the organism. (MS-LS3-1)
LS4.B: Natural Selection
• In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring. (MS-LS4-5)
Science and Engineering Practices (NGSS)
Developing and Using Models
Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.
• Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-LS3-1),(MS-LS3-2)
Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.
• Construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources (including the students’ own experiments) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future. (MS-LS1-5)
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).
• Use an oral and written argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem. (MS-LS1-4)
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.
• Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence. (MS-LS4-5)
Crosscutting Concepts (NGSS)
Cause and Effect
• Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-LS3-2)
• Phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability. (MS-LS1-4),(MS-LS1-5),(MS-LS4-5)
Structure and Function
• Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the shapes, composition, and relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function. (MS-LS3-1)
Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science
Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
• Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems. (MS-LS4-5)
Connections to Nature of Science
Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
• Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (MS-LS4-1),(MS-LS4-2)
Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World
• Scientific knowledge can describe the consequences of actions but does not necessarily prescribe the decisions that society takes. (MS-LS4-5)
Performance Expectations (NGSS)
MS.Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
MS-LS1-4. Use argument based on empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support an explanation for how characteristic animal behaviors and specialized plant structures affect the probability of successful reproduction of animals and plants respectively. [Clarification Statement: Examples of behaviors that affect the probability of animal reproduction could include nest building to protect young from cold, herding of animals to protect young from predators, and vocalization of animals and colorful plumage to attract mates for breeding. Examples of animal behaviors that affect the probability of plant reproduction could include transferring pollen or seeds, and creating conditions for seed germination and growth. Examples of plant structures could include bright flowers attracting butterflies that transfer pollen, flower nectar and odors that attract insects that transfer pollen, and hard shells on nuts that squirrels bury.]
MS-LS1-5. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how environmental and genetic factors influence the growth of organisms. [Clarification Statement: Examples of local environmental conditions could include availability of food, light, space, and water. Examples of genetic factors could include large breed cattle and species of grass affecting growth of organisms. Examples of evidence could include drought decreasing plant growth, fertilizer increasing plant growth, different varieties of plant seeds growing at different rates in different conditions, and fish growing larger in large ponds than they do in small ponds.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include genetic mechanisms, gene regulation, or biochemical processes.]
MS-LS3-1. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific changes at the molecular level, mechanisms for protein synthesis, or specific types of mutations.]
MS-LS3-2. Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using models such as Punnett squares, diagrams, and simulations to describe the cause and effect relationship of gene transmission from parent(s) to offspring and resulting genetic variation.]
MS-LS4-5. Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on synthesizing information from reliable sources about the influence of humans on genetic outcomes in artificial selection (such as genetic modification, animal husbandry, gene therapy); and, on the impacts these technologies have on society as well as the technologies leading to these scientific discoveries.]
Related NYS Standards
Inheritance and Variation of Traits
LE 2.1a Hereditary information is contained in genes. Genes are composed of DNA that makes up the chromosomes of cells.
LE 2.1b Each gene carries a single unit of information. A single inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one pair or many pairs of genes. A human cell contains thousands of different genes.
LE2.1c Each human cell contains a copy of all the genes needed to produce a human being.
LE2.1d In asexual reproduction, all the genes come from a single parent. Asexually produced offspring are genetically identical to the parent.
LE2.1e In sexual reproduction typically half of the genes come from each parent. Sexually produced offspring are not identical to either parent.
LE2.2a In organisms, genetic traits are passed on from generation to generation.
LE2.2b Some genes are dominant and some are recessive. Some traits are dominant and some are recessive. Some traits are inherited by mechanisms other than dominance and reccessivness.
LE2.2c The probability of traits being expressed can be determined using models of genetic inheritance. Some models of prediction are pedigree charts and Punnett squares.
LE 3.1a The processes of sexual reproduction and mutation have given rise to a variety of traits within species.
LE 4.1a Some organisms reproduce asexually. Other organisms reproduce asexually. Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually.
LE 4.1b There are many methods of asexual reproduction, including division of a cell into two cells, or separation of part of an animal or plant from the parent, resulting in growth of another individual.
LE 4.2a The male sex cell is the sperm. The female sex cell is the egg. The fertilization of an egg by a sperm results in a fertilized egg.
LE 4.2b In sexual reproduction sperm and egg carry one half of the genetic information for the new individual. Therefore, the fertilized off contains genetic information from each parent.
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Amsel, Sheri. "NYS Standards with NGSS - MS Growth and Development of Organisms" Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2022. December 10, 2022
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