Life Science - Cell Structure and Cell Division
Disciplinary Core Ideas (NGSS)
LS1.A: Structure and Function
• All living things are made up of cells, which is the smallest unit that can be said to be alive. An organism may consist of one single cell (unicellular) or many different numbers and types of cells (multicellular). (MS-LS1-1)
• Within cells, special structures are responsible for particular functions, and the cell membrane forms the boundary that controls what enters and leaves the cell. (MS-LS1-2)
• In multicellular organisms, the body is a system of multiple interacting subsystems. These subsystems are groups of cells that work together to form tissues and organs that are specialized for particular body functions. (MS-LS1-3)
LS1.D: Information Processing
• Each sense receptor responds to different inputs (electromagnetic, mechanical, chemical), transmitting them as signals that travel along nerve cells to the brain. The signals are then processed in the brain, resulting in immediate behaviors or memories. (MS-LS1-8)
Science and Engineering Practices (NGSS)
Developing and Using Models
Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.
• Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-LS1-2)
• Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. (MS-LS1-7)
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Planning and carrying out investigations in 6-8 builds on K-5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or solutions.
• Conduct an investigation to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that meet the goals of an investigation. (MS-LS1-1)
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).
• Use an oral and written argument supported by evidence to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon. (MS-LS1-3)
Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6-8 builds on K-5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.
• Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence. (MS-LS1-8)
Crosscutting Concepts (NGSS)
Cause and Effect
• Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural systems. (MS-LS1-8)
Scale, Proportion, and Quantity
• Phenomena that can be observed at one scale may not be observable at another scale. (MS-LS1-1)
Systems and System Models
• Systems may interact with other systems; they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems. (MS-LS1-3)
Structure and Function
• Complex and microscopic structures and systems can be visualized, modeled, and used to describe how their function depends on the relationships among its parts, therefore complex natural structures/systems can be analyzed to determine how they function. (MS-LS1-2)
Performance Expectations (NGSS)
MS.Structure, Function, and Information Processing
MS-LS1-1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living things, and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and varied cells.]
MS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.]
MS-LS1-3. Use argument supported by evidence for how the body is a system of interacting subsystems composed of groups of cells.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding that cells form tissues and tissues form organs specialized for particular body functions. Examples could include the interaction of subsystems within a system and the normal functioning of those systems.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the mechanism of one body system independent of others. Assessment is limited to the circulatory, excretory, digestive, respiratory, muscular, and nervous systems.]
MS-LS1-8. Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories.
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include mechanisms for the transmission of this information.]
Related NYS Standards
Cell Structure and Division
LE1.1a Living things are composed of cells. Cells provide structure and carry on major functions to sustain life. Cells are usually microscopic in size.
LE 1.1b The way in which cells function is similar in all living things. Cells grow and divide, producing more cells. Cells take in nutrients, which they use to provide for the work that cells do and to make the materials that a cell or an organism needs.
LE 1.1c Most cells have cell membranes, genetic material, and cytoplasm. Some cells have a cell wall and/or chloroplast. Many cells have a nucleus.
LE 1.1d Some organisms are single cells; others, including humans are multicellular.
LE 4.4a In multicellular organisms, cell division is responsible for growth, maintenance and repair. In some one-celled organisms, cell division is a method of asexual reproduction.
LE4.4b In one type of cell division, chromosomes are duplicated and then separated into two identical and complete sets to be passed to each of the two resulting cells. In this type of cell division, the hereditary information is identical in all cells that result.
LE4.4c Another type of cell division accounts for the production of egg and sperm cells in sexually reproducing organisms. The eggs and sperm resulting from this type of cell division contain one half of the hereditary information.
LE4.4d Cancers are a result of abnormal cell division.
LE1.1h Living things are classified by shared characteristics on the cellular and organism level. In classifying organisms, biologists consider details of internal and external structures. Biological classification systems are arranged from general (Kingdom) to specific (species).
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Amsel, Sheri. "NYS Standards with NGSS - MS Cell Structure and Cell Division" Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2022. December 7, 2022
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