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Life Science, Earth Science, and Physical Science Resources for K-12

Lessons for Physical Science (Appendix E.)

Appendix E. Physical Science (LINKS to Examples)

 

PS1 Matter and Its Interactions

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter
K-2
• Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2-PS1-1)
• Different properties are suited to different purposes. (2-PS1-2),(2-PS1-3)
• A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. (2-PS1-3)

3-5 • Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects. (5-PS1-1)
• The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. (5-PS1-2)
• Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. (Boundary: At this grade level, mass and weight are not distinguished, and no attempt is made to define the unseen particles or explain the atomic-scale mechanism of evaporation and condensation.) (5-PS1-3)

6-8 • Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. (MS-PS1-1)
• Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-3)
• Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. (MS-PS1-4)
• In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. (MS-PS1-4)
• Solids may be formed from molecules, or they may be extended structures with repeating subunits (e.g., crystals). (MS-PS1-1)
• The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter. (MS-PS1-4)

Phases of Matter – Gas, Liquids, Solids
Volume, Mass and Density


PS1.B: Chemical Reactions
K-2
• Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. (2-PS1-4)

3-5 • When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed. (5-PS1-4)
• No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. (Boundary: Mass and weight are not distinguished at this grade level.) (5-PS1-2)

6-8 • Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-3),(MS-PS1-5)
• The total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change. (MS-PS1-5)
• Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy. (MS-PS1-6)

PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
PS2.A: Forces and Motion

K-2 
• Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. (K-PS2-1),(K-PS2-2)
• Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. (K-PS2-1),(K-PS2-2)

3-5 • Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces are used at this level.) (3-PS2-1)
• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2)

6-8 • For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton’s third law). (MS-PS2-1)
• The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. (MS-PS2-2)
• All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. In order to share information with other people, these choices must also be shared. (MS-PS2-2)

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

K-2 
• When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. (K-PS2-1)

3-5
• Objects in contact exert forces on each other. (3-PS2-1)
• Electric, and magnetic forces between a pair of objects do not require that the objects be in contact. The sizes of the forces in each situation depend on the properties of the objects and their distances apart and, for forces between two magnets, on their orientation relative to each other. (3-PS2-3),(3-PS2-4)

6-8
• Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting objects. (MS-PS2-3)
• Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass—e.g., Earth and the sun. (MS-PS2-4)
• Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively). (MS-PS2-5)



PS3 Energy

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy
K-2
N/A

3-5  • The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses. (4-PS3-1)
• Energy can be moved from place to place by moving objects or through sound, light, or electric currents. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3)

6-8 • The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal energy (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and the transfer of that thermal energy from one object to another. In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to the energy transferred due to the temperature difference between two objects. (secondary to MS-PS1-4)
• The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system’s material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material. Temperature is not a direct measure of a system's total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called the total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material. (secondary to MS-PS1-4)
• Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. (MS-PS3-1)
• A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. (MS-PS3-2)
• Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. (MS-PS3-3),(MS-PS3-4)

Energy - Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and EnergyTransfer

K-2
• Sunlight warms Earth’s surface. (K-PS3-1),(K-PS3-2)

3-5
• Energy is present whenever there are moving objects, sound, light, or heat. When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion. In such collisions, some energy is typically also transferred to the surrounding air; as a result, the air gets heated and sound is produced. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3)
• Light also transfers energy from place to place. (4-PS3-2)
• Energy can also be transferred from place to place by electric currents, which can then be used locally to produce motion, sound, heat, or light. The currents may have been produced to begin with by transforming the energy of motion into electrical energy. (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-4)

Circuits Unit

6-8
•  When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. (MS-PS3-5)
• The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment. (MS-PS3-4)
• Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones. (MS-PS3-3)

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces
K-2
• A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly. (secondary to K-PS2-1)

3-5 • When objects collide, the contact forces transfer energy so as to change the objects’ motions. (4-PS3-3)

6-8 • When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object. (MS-PS3-2)
• When the motion energy of an object changes, there is inevitably some other change in energy at the same time. (MS-PS3-5)
• The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment. (MS-PS3-4)
• Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or objects and into colder ones. (MS-PS3-3)

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life
K-2
N/A

3-5

• The expression “produce energy” typically refers to the conversion of stored energy into a desired form for practical use. (4-PS3-4)
• The energy released [from] food was once energy from the sun that was captured by plants in the chemical process that forms plant matter (from air and water). (5-PS3-1)

6-8
• The chemical reaction by which plants produce complex food molecules (sugars) requires an energy input (i.e., from sunlight) to occur. In this reaction, carbon dioxide and water combine to form carbon-based organic molecules and release oxygen. (secondary to MS-LS1-6)
• Cellular respiration in plants and animals involve chemical reactions with oxygen that release stored energy. In these processes, complex molecules containing carbon react with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and other materials. (secondary to MS-LS1-7)

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

1-PS4 Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
PS4.A: Wave Properties

K-2
• Sound can make matter vibrate, and vibrating matter can make sound. (1-PS4-1)

3-5 • Waves, which are regular patterns of motion, can be made in water by disturbing the surface. When waves move across the surface of deep water, the water goes up and down in place; there is no net motion in the direction of the wave except when the water meets a beach. (Note: This grade band endpoint was moved from K–2.) (4-PS4-1)
• Waves of the same type can differ in amplitude (height of the wave) and wavelength (spacing between wave peaks). (4-PS4-1)

6-8 • A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. (MS-PS4-1)
• A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted. (MS-PS4-2)

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

K-2
• Objects can be seen if light is available to illuminate them or if they give off their own light. (1-PS4-2)
• Some materials allow light to pass through them, others allow only some light through and others block all the light and create a dark shadow on any surface beyond them, where the light cannot reach. Mirrors can be used to redirect a light beam. (Boundary: The idea that light travels from place to place is developed through experiences with light sources, mirrors, and shadows, but no attempt is made to discuss the speed of light.) (1-PS4-3)

3-5 • An object can be seen when light reflected from its surface enters the eyes. (4-PS4-2)

6-8 • When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. (MS-PS4-2)
• The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. (MS-PS4-2)
• A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between media. (MS-PS4-2)
• However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves. (MS-PS4-2)

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

K-2
• People also use a variety of devices to communicate (send and receive information) over long distances. (1-PS4-4)

3-5 • Digitized information can be transmitted over long distances without significant degradation. High-tech devices, such as computers or cell phones, can receive and decode information—convert it from digitized form to voice—and vice versa. (4-PS4-3)

6-8 • Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information. (MS-PS4-3)


Citing Research References

When you research information you must cite the reference. Citing for websites is different from citing from books, magazines and periodicals. The style of citing shown here is from the MLA Style Citations (Modern Language Association).

When citing a WEBSITE the general format is as follows.
Author Last Name, First Name(s). "Title: Subtitle of Part of Web Page, if appropriate." Title: Subtitle: Section of Page if appropriate. Sponsoring/Publishing Agency, If Given. Additional significant descriptive information. Date of Electronic Publication or other Date, such as Last Updated. Day Month Year of access < URL >.

Here is an example of citing this page:

Amsel, Sheri. "Lessons for Physical Science (Appendix E.)" Exploring Nature Educational Resource ©2005-2019. October 18, 2019
< http://www.exploringnature.org/db/view/Lessons-for-Physical-Science-Appendix-E >

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