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Muscles of the Leg (Calf) and Foot (Lateral View) (Advanced)

Muscles of the Leg (Calf) and Foot (Lateral View) (Advanced)

l. Anterior Compartment of Leg (Knee Down) – Dorsiflexion (Extension)
1) Tibialis anterior (shin splints muscle)

a. Actions: dorsiflexion, inverts foot (supports medial longitudinal arch)
b. Innervation: Deep peroneal nerve
c. Origin: from lateral condyle and upper tibia
d. Insertion: to medial cuniform bone (tarsal) and 1st metatarsal bone

2) Extensor digitorum longus

a. Actions: dorsiflexion, everts foot, extends toes
b. Innervation: Deep peroneal nerve
c. Origin: from lateral condyle and upper tibia and proximal fibula
d. Insertion: to 2nd and 3rd phalanges of toes 2-5

3) Peroneus tertius

a. Actions: dorsiflexion, everts foot
b. Innervation: Deep peroneal nerve
c. Origin: from distal and anterior fibula passes anterior to lateral malleolus
d. Insertion: on the dorsum of the 5th metatarsal

4) Extensor hallicus longus

a. Actions: extends great toe, dorsiflexion of foot, aids in foot inversion
b. Innervation: Deep peroneal nerve
c. Origin: from anterior, medial fibula
d. Insertion: to distal phalanx of big toe


ll. Muscles of the Lateral Compartment of Leg (Knee Down)
5) Peroneus longus

a. Actions: plantar flexion, everts foot
b. Innervation: Superficial peroneal nerve
c. Origin: from proximal fibula passes under foot
d. Insertion: to 1st metatarsal

6) Peroneus brevis

a. Actions: plantar flexion, everts foot
b. Innervation: Superficial peroneal nerve
c. Origin: from distal fibula passes behind lateral malleolus
d. Insertion: to insert proximally on 5th metatarsal

lll. Superficial Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of Leg (Knee Down)
7) Gastrocnemius

a. Actions: plantar flexion (when knee is extended), weak flexor of knee when foot is dorsifexed
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from medal and lateral condyles of femur
d. Insertion: to calcaneous via Achilles tendon (also called Calcaneal tendon)

8) Soleus

a. Actions: plantar flexion (at ankle) – locomotion muscle
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from tibia and fibula
d. Insertion: to calcaneous via Achilles tendon (also called Calcaneal tendon)

9) Plantaris

a. Actions: assists in knee flexion, plantar flexion of foot
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from posterior femur laterally
d. Insertion: to calcaneous via Achilles tendon (also called Calcaneal tendon)

lV. Deep Muscles of the Posterior Compartment of Leg (Knee Down)

10) Popliteus

a. Actions: flexes knee and rotates leg medially to unlock knee from full extension
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from lateral condyles of femur
d. Insertion: to proximal tibia

11) Flexor digitorum longus

a. Actions: plantar flexes foot, inverts foot, flexes toes (helps foot grip ground)                            
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from posterior tibia runs behind medial malleolus
d. Insertion: into 4 tendons to distal phalanges of toes 2-5

12) Flexor hallicus longus

a. Actions: plantar flexes foot, inverts foot, flexes big toe at all joints (pushes off during walking)                            
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from middle fibula runs under foot
d. Insertion: to distal phalanx of big toe

13) Tibialis posterior

a. Actions: inverts foot, plantar flexes foot (supports medial longitudinal arch)
b. Innervation: Tibial nerve
c. Origin: from proximal tibia and fibula it runs behind medial malleolus under arch
d. Insertion: into 4 tendons to tarsals and metatarsals 2-4

Not Muscle:
14) Superior extensor retinaculum
15) Inferior extensor retinaculum
16) Peroneal retinaculum
17)  Lateral malleolus or “ankle bone”

 

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