Engineering Design for Grades K-2
Next Generation of Science Standards (NGSS)
Disciplinary Core Ideas
ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems
• A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. (K-2-ETS1-1)
• Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. (K-2-ETS1-1)
• Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem. (K-2-ETS1-1)
ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions
• Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem’s solutions to other people. (K-2-ETS1-2)
ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution
• Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. (K-2-ETS1-3)
Science and Engineering Practices (NGSS)
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Asking questions and defining problems in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to simple descriptive questions.
• Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world(s). (K-2-ETS1-1)
• Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-1)
Developing and Using Models
Modeling in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to include using and developing models (i.e., diagram, drawing, physical replica, diorama, dramatization, or storyboard) that represent concrete events or design solutions.
• Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool. (K-2-ETS1-2)
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in K–2 builds on prior experiences and progresses to collecting, recording, and sharing observations.
• Analyze data from tests of an object or tool to determine if it works as intended. (K-2-ETS1-3)
Crosscutting Concepts (NGSS)
Structure and Function
• The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s). (K-2-ETS1-2)
Students who demonstrate understanding can:
K-2-ETS1-1. Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.
K-2-ETS1-2. Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem.
K-2-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests of two objects designed to solve the same problem to compare the strengths and weaknesses of how each performs.
Common Core State Standards Connections:
RI.2.1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. (K-2-ETS1-1)
W.2.6 With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing, including in collaboration with peers. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3)
W.2.8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3)
SL.2.5 Create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. (K-2-ETS1-2)
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3)
MP.5 Use appropriate tools strategically. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3)
2.MD.D.10 Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph. (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-3)
Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:
3-5.ETS1.A (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-2),(K-2-ETS1-3); 3-5.ETS1.B (K-2-ETS1-2),(K-2-ETS1-3); 3-5.ETS1.C (K-2-ETS1-1),(K-2-ETS1-2),(K-2-ETS1-3)
Connections to K-2-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems include:
Kindergarten: K-PS2-2, K-ESS3-2
Connections to K-2-ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions to Problems include:
Kindergarten: K-ESS3-3, First Grade: 1-PS4-4, Second Grade: 2-LS2-2
Connections to K-2-ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution include:
Second Grade: 2-ESS2-1