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Grade 6-8 - MS-PS4 Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Grade 6-8 - MS-PS4 Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

 

Next Generation of Science Standards (NGSS) - Middle School Physical Science

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties
• A simple wave has a repeating pattern with a specific wavelength, frequency, and amplitude. (MS-PS4-1)
• A sound wave needs a medium through which it is transmitted. (MS-PS4-2)

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation
• When light shines on an object, it is reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through the object, depending on the object’s material and the frequency (color) of the light. (MS-PS4-2)
• The path that light travels can be traced as straight lines, except at surfaces between different transparent materials (e.g., air and water, air and glass) where the light path bends. (MS-PS4-2)
• A wave model of light is useful for explaining brightness, color, and the frequency-dependent bending of light at a surface between media. (MS-PS4-2)
• However, because light can travel through space, it cannot be a matter wave, like sound or water waves. (MS-PS4-2)

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation
• Digitized signals (sent as wave pulses) are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information. (MS-PS4-3)


Science and Engineering Practices

 Developing and Using Models
Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.
• Develop and use a model to describe phenomena. (MS-PS4-2)

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.
• Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions. (MS-PS4-1)

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6-8 builds on K-5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.
• Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings. (MS-PS4-3)

Connections to Nature of Science

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS4-1)

Crosscutting Concepts

 Patterns
• Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data. (MS-PS4-1)

Structure and Function
•  Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used. (MS-PS4-2)
•  Structures can be designed to serve particular functions. (MS-PS4-3)

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World
•  Technologies extend the measurement, exploration, modeling, and computational capacity of scientific investigations. (MS-PS4-3)

Connections to Nature of Science

Science is a Human Endeavor
• Advances in technology influence the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (MS-PS4-3)

Performance Expectations

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS4-1.  Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.]

MS-PS4-2.  Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.]

MS-PS4-3.  Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.]

Common Core State Standards Connections

ELA/Literacy

RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.9 Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-PS4-3)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-PS4-3)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2)

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS4-1)
MP.4  Model with mathematics. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS4-1)
7.RP.A.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
8.F.A.3 Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS4-1)
Grade 6-8 - MS-PS4 Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer
Grade 6-8 - MS-PS4 Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

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