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Grade 6-8 - MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Grade 6-8 - MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

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Disciplinary Core Ideas

 LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
• The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order (e.g., through the location of the sedimentary layers in which they are found or through radioactive dating) is known as the fossil record. It documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth. (MS-LS4-1)
• Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record, enable the reconstruction of evolutionary history and the inference of lines of evolutionary descent. (MS-LS4-2)
• Comparison of the embryological development of different species also reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully-formed anatomy. (MS-LS4-3)

LS4.B: Natural Selection
• Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others. (MS-LS4-4)
• In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring. (MS-LS4-5)

LS4.C: Adaptation
• Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. (MS-LS4-6)

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 Use the Template and Resource Links to Fulfill NGSS

l. Goals:

  1. Understand that anatomical similarities and differences between organisms living today and in the fossil record, enable the reconstruction of evolutionary history and the inference of lines of evolutionary descent.
  2. Understand that comparison of the embryological development of different species also reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully-formed anatomy.
  3. Understand that natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others.
  4. Understand that in artificial selection, humans can influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring.
  5. Understand that adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions.
  6. Understand that traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes.
  7. Understand that collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is the fossil record and documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.

Essential Questions:

  1. How do we documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth?
  2. How do we reconstruct evolutionary history?
  3. Why do we compare the embryological development of different species?
  4. What leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others?
  5. How can humans influence certain characteristics of organisms?
  6. How do species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions?
  7. How do the distribution of traits in a population change?

NGSS Note: Think, question, entertain ideas.

ll. Introductory Activities to Assess Prior Knowledge

A. Brainstorming Sessions
Question: What are some examples of natural selection in animal coloring?
1. Break students down into groups of 3-4.
2. Ask students to generate a list of the different animals they know that have adaptive coloring.
3
. Discuss

Brainstorming Sessions
Question: What are some examples of artificial selection in animal selective breeding?
1. Break students down into groups of 3-4.
2. Ask students to generate a list of the the animals they know of that have been affected by artificial selection.
3
. Discuss

 

lll. New Knowledge - Text

A. Read about:

Adaptation - What is it?

Adaptation Illustrated

Adaptations

Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth Activity

The History of Genetics - How Animals Were Domesticated

The History of Genetics - How Wild Plants Were Domesticated

B. Examples of Models (depicts the concept expressed in the reading):

Ask students to look at the models and explain how each illustrates the concepts they've read about.

peppered moth

lV. Experiments, Activities, Model-making (Critical Thinking) 

A. Critical Thinking Activities related to adaptation and natural selection:

Natural Selection and the Peppered Moth Activity

Insect Adaptation - Camouflage Matching

Insect Camouflage Matching - Structure & Function

Adaptation in the Schoolyard - Read and React

Animal Adaptation Observation and Critical Thinking

Insect Camouflage Matching - Structure & Function

Pollination and Seed Dispersal Adaptations

B. Authentic Performance - Understanding by Design (UbD) assessment tool.
Use critical thinking to complete thse Authentic Performance Activities and deepen your understanding about the above topics.

Adaptations - Authentic Performance

 

Adaptations - Authentic Performance
Insect Adaptation - Camouflage Matching

V. Summarize Knowledge - Enduring Understandings

  1. Anatomical similarities and differences between organisms living today and in the fossil record, enable the reconstruction of evolutionary history and the inference of lines of evolutionary descent.
  2. A comparison of the embryological development of different species also reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully-formed anatomy.
  3. Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others.
  4. Artificial selection, humans can influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring.
  5. Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions.
  6. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes.
  7. A collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order is the fossil record and documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth.

Vl. New Generation of Science Standards (NGSS) - Middle School Life Science

Disciplinary Core Ideas

 LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity
• The collection of fossils and their placement in chronological order (e.g., through the location of the sedimentary layers in which they are found or through radioactive dating) is known as the fossil record. It documents the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of many life forms throughout the history of life on Earth. (MS-LS4-1)
• Anatomical similarities and differences between various organisms living today and between them and organisms in the fossil record, enable the reconstruction of evolutionary history and the inference of lines of evolutionary descent. (MS-LS4-2)
• Comparison of the embryological development of different species also reveals similarities that show relationships not evident in the fully-formed anatomy. (MS-LS4-3)

LS4.B: Natural Selection
• Natural selection leads to the predominance of certain traits in a population, and the suppression of others. (MS-LS4-4)
• In artificial selection, humans have the capacity to influence certain characteristics of organisms by selective breeding. One can choose desired parental traits determined by genes, which are then passed on to offspring. (MS-LS4-5)

LS4.C: Adaptation
• Adaptation by natural selection acting over generations is one important process by which species change over time in response to changes in environmental conditions. Traits that support successful survival and reproduction in the new environment become more common; those that do not become less common. Thus, the distribution of traits in a population changes. (MS-LS4-6)

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.
• Analyze displays of data to identify linear and nonlinear relationships. (MS-LS4-3)
• Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings. (MS-LS4-1)

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking
Mathematical and computational thinking in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.
• Use mathematical representations to support scientific conclusions and design solutions. (MS-LS4-6)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
• Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for real-world phenomena, examples, or events. (MS-LS4-2)
• Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that describe phenomena. (MS-LS4-4)

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.
• Gather, read, and synthesize information from multiple appropriate sources and assess the credibility, accuracy, and possible bias of each publication and methods used, and describe how they are supported or not supported by evidence. (MS-LS4-5)

Connections to Nature of Science

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-LS4-1)

Crosscutting Concepts (NGSS)

Patterns
• Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. (MS-LS4-2)
    Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data. (MS-LS4-1),(MS-LS4-3)

Cause and Effect
• Phenomena may have more than one cause, and some cause and effect relationships in systems can only be described using probability. (MS-LS4-4),(MS-LS4-5),(MS-LS4-6)

Connections to Engineering, Technology and Applications of Science

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology
• Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems. (MS-LS4-5)

  Connections to Nature of Science

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems
• Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (MS-LS4-1),(MS-LS4-2)

Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World
• Scientific knowledge can describe the consequences of actions but does not necessarily prescribe the decisions that society takes. (MS-LS4-5)

Performance Expectations

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS4-1. Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on finding patterns of changes in the level of complexity of anatomical structures in organisms and the chronological order of fossil appearance in the rock layers.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the names of individual species or geological eras in the fossil record.]

MS-LS4-2. Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explanations of the evolutionary relationships among organisms in terms of similarity or differences of the gross appearance of anatomical structures.]

MS-LS4-3. Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on inferring general patterns of relatedness among embryos of different organisms by comparing the macroscopic appearance of diagrams or pictures.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of comparisons is limited to gross appearance of anatomical structures in embryological development.]

MS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using simple probability statements and proportional reasoning to construct explanations.]

MS-LS4-5.
Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on synthesizing information from reliable sources about the influence of humans on genetic outcomes in artificial selection (such as genetic modification, animal husbandry, gene therapy); and, on the impacts these technologies have on society as well as the technologies leading to these scientific discoveries.]

MS-LS4-6. Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using mathematical models, probability statements, and proportional reasoning to support explanations of trends in changes to populations over time.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Hardy Weinberg calculations.]

 Common Core State Standards Connections

ELA/Literacy
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions. (MS-LS4-1),(MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-3),(MS-LS4-4),(MS-LS4-5)

RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS4-1),(MS-LS4-3)

RST.6-8.9 Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-LS4-3),(MS-LS4-4)

WHST.6-8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (MS-LS4-5)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

SL.8.1    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

SL.8.4    Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (MS-LS4-5)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

SL.8.1    Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

SL.8.4    Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (MS-LS4-2),(MS-LS4-4)

Mathematics

MP.4    Model with mathematics. (MS-LS4-6)

6.RP.A.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-LS4-4),(MS-LS4-6)

6.SP.B.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS4-4),(MS-LS4-6)

6.EE.B.6 Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. (MS-LS4-1),(MS-LS4-2)

7.RP.A.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-LS4-4),(MS-LS4-6)

Grade 6-8 - MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
Grade 6-8 - MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
Grade 6-8 - MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
Grade 6-8 - MS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

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