The second spaceflight program with manned missions was called Project Gemini. Project Gemini ran from 1963 to 1966. Its mission was to make enough advances in space travel that astronauts would be able to get to the moon. The moon missions were already planned as Apollo Missions, but the Gemini missions had some things to solve first.
Going to the moon made space missions a lot more complicated because the astronauts would have to move outside their spacecraft, land on the moon, get back up to the orbiting spacecraft, attach to it again and get inside. They needed to learn the effects of weightlessness and longer time in space on the crew. They needed equipment that would last longer in space and be able to land at a selected landing point.
The Gemini spacecraft could hold two men, had the first onboard computer, could change its position in orbit and could also dock with other spacecraft. It had ejection seats, in-flight radar and an artificial horizon.
The success of the 12 Gemini Missions (2 were unmanned tests) led to the Apollo missions to the moon.
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