1) There are 23 pairs of chromosomes found in the nucleus of our cells – one set from each parent.
2) Each chromosome is made up of one long DNA molecule, on which hundreds to thousands of genes are arranged.
3) Genes code for synthesizing proteins – which determine our traits.
4) Because we get two sets of chromosomes, it means that we actually have two sets of genetic instructions – so two genes for each potential trait.
5) These matched genes are found in the same location on each of the paired chromosomes and are called alleles.
6) The two alleles of any gene may code for the same or different forms of the same trait (e.g. curly hair or straight hair).
7) Chromosomes 23 is an X or Y chromosome determining the sex of offspring.
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